Schrödinger’s Cat’s Theory
“Imagine that you put your neighbor’s annoying cat in a steel box that contains a mechanism with radioactive material and a flask of poisonous liquid. An hour later there’s a 50% chance that the radioactive atom will decay, which will open the flask of poison and the cat will die. If there’s no decay, the pet will survive as long as the Box remains closed. The cat is considered to be both alive and dead.” So, how can we learn its fate without opening the box?
For the past 100 years the best minds on the planet have tried to solve this riddle and it appears that they have recently succeeded. Riddle with the cat was a thought experiment proposed by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger. Since then his imaginary pet has become the most famous cat in history.
The essence of this thought experiment is to show the imperfection of quantum mechanics, which states that the atomic nucleus as well as all elementary particles are in so-called superposition. That is the nucleus of an atom simultaneously decays and does not decay. Accordingly, the Schrödinger’s cat is both alive and dead. But when we open the box, it will not be in both states at the same time, only in one.
Accordingly the study of quantum, simultaneous states is impossible. Because when we observe an object it acquires one specific state. When a particle is monitored we can witness, while it makes a quantum leap, a transition to one specific state. Moreover this jump occurs instantly as if by the push of a button. However this of the 1990’s, believe that a particle goes through a certain smooth path before making a quantum leap which technology had not previously been able to measure.
Quantum Physics Used to Solve Schrödinger’s Cat Theory
In 2019, Yale University physicists along with their colleagues from France and New Zealand found a way to do it. The scientists conducted an experiment in which they indirectly observe Qubits. Artificial atoms used as the basic units of information in a quantum computer. The researchers used three microwave generators to irradiate the Qubit in an aluminum container. This microwave radiation switches the Qubit between energy states. Well the second ray controls the capacitance. When the qubit is in the ground state, microwave radiation produces photons.
When the photons begin to disappear, this signals that the Qubit is about to make a quantum leap to the excited state. This means that the quantum leap is more like a smooth shift lever, rather than an abrupt push of a button. Therefore, it’s possible to predict, whether the cat will die before the particle makes a quantum leap, which will save the pet from death just in time. Moreover the quantum leap can be reversed or you can change its direction. That is you can control the quantum state of the atom and save any cat placed in a steel box with poison.
Only there’s one caveat, by irradiating an atom, we won’t simply track the trajectory of the quantum jump but rather change it. Even a single particle of light, a photon can change the energy of an atom. Which means that when you observe an atom with the help of light, you’ll also be able to determine the quantum state of the particle. So, in this way we can’t solve the riddle of Schrodinger’s cat.
New Conclusions From Japan’s and India’s Scientists
However, Holger Hofmann from Hiroshima University and Karthik Patekar from the Indian Institute of Technology and Bombay, decided to find a method to look inside the cat without changing anything in the structure of the observed particle. Scientists have suggested that at the initial stage, when we only look at the cat before placing it in the box, the photons scatter without any loss of information. It’s only at the second stage, when we find out whether the cat is alive or not. So, half of the information is eliminated as false. One of these possibilities will cancel the other one out.
Now imagine that the cat is still in the box but instead of getting it out we place a camera outside, that will take a picture of the Schrödinger’s cat. The image will be blurry and it will give us two types of information. The first type is a quantum label that shows, how the Schrödinger’s cat changed during the interaction. The second type is the state of the cat whether it is alive or dead. Until both types of information are read, they’re not clear to the observer.
Further, it all depends on the order, in which the information is processed. Either the observer can remove the quantum mark or find out whether the cat is alive or not. When one piece of information is known, the second will be automatically deleted. But until the photo is processed, the cat is in a quantum superposition to make this easier to understand.
Simple Way to Understand The Theory
You can refer to the example of a coin toss. You can find out only two types of information about it. Either the coin is flipped now and rotate in the air or it lies on the table with heads or tails up. It’s impossible to observe both events at the same time. However the blurry snapshot of the cat allows you to capture these two types of information at the same time. That is for the first time, physicists have the opportunity to measure a quantum system without its distortion that always occurs during observation.
However as it turned out in even earlier studies. Not only can they can’t be alive and dead at the same time. But it can also be in two different boxes at the same time. Chen Wang, a physicist at Yale University together with colleagues, built 2 aluminum cavities with a diameter of about 1 inch or 2.5 centimeters. They placed a super -conducting element made of sapphire inside them, which emitted stable waves of light. As a result, the quantum cat
consisting of 80 photons was simultaneously in two containers.
True, such an effect can be observed only under special conditions. This requires ultra pure aluminum high precision micro circuits and electromagnetic devices that allow photons to exist in isolation from the observer. As soon as something from the environment intervenes in this process, all this quantum magic will disappear almost instantly. By the way, these quantum features are also related to temperature.
Schrödinger’s cat helped to Solve & have conclusions
Thanks to Schrödinger’s cat, physicists from the University of Exeter in England, managed to find out that in
the quantum world, one particle in have two different temperatures at the same time. Scientists made their discovery based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. According to this principle, “it is impossible to accurately determine both the temperature and the energy of an object at the same time”.
The fact is that the most accurate scientific determination of temperature is achieved by placing the object in a tank of water or air. The temperature of, which is known. In this case, he studied object reaches the temperature in the reservoir which allows you to determine the exact initial temperature of the object. But then it’s impossible to calculate the energy level. Since the object constantly gives and receives it.
In the opposite case, when energy is measured the object, must be isolated. So that it doesn’t come into contact with or exchange energy, which in turn makes it impossible to measure temperature. However in the quantum world everything works differently. If you measure the exact energy, the temperature remains uncertain and will fluctuate between two values.
Schrödinger’s cat principle using mathematical calculations
For example, between 31 and 32 degrees Fahrenheit or minus point five and zero degrees Celsius. But if we apply the Schrodinger cat principle and some mathematical calculations, it turns out that the particle does not oscillate. But rather it has these two temperatures at the same time. This means now physicists have the ability to measure the behavior of incredibly small nanoparticles with great accuracy. Such as concept may seem too strange and abstract but all the same.
It is the mystery of Schrödinger’s cat that will lead to future development in many areas of human life. This riddle is only partially solved. But each new puzzle in the quantum picture of the world brings us closer to technologies that today seem unimaginable. Quantum supercomputers capable of digitizing human consciousness endless sources of energy. All this will be available, thanks to a small animal that existed exclusively in the imagination of one great scientist.
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